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Risk Factors

Factors that put a patient at risk for VOD

While veno-occlusive disease (VOD) can occur in any patient receiving stem-cell transplant, there are factors that may increase the risk of developing VOD.

These include:

  • Some current or prior conditions, such as cancers or noncancerous blood disorders
  • Certain patient characteristics
  • Previously received medications or treatments

What factors put a patient at risk for VOD?

Current/prior conditions

Patient characteristics

  • Older age (in adult patients)


  • Allogeneic stem-cell transplant (stem-cell transplant with cells from another person)
  • Second stem-cell transplant
  • Unrelated stem-cell donor (stem-cell transplant from a donor that is not related to the patient)
  • Current or previous use of drugs that damage the liver, including those used to prepare the bone marrow for stem-cell transplant
  • Female taking the hormone norethindrone, a form of birth control

What additional factors put a CHILD at risk for VOD?

Current/prior conditions

  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, also known as HLH, an immune cell disease
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy, also known as ALD, a genetic brain disease
  • Osteopetrosis, a bone disease
  • Neuroblastoma, a type of cancer that affects immature nerve tissue
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic chronic leukemia
  • Chronic blood disorders, such as thalassemia or sickle cell disease

Patient characteristics

  • Low weight
  • Age less than 2 years old

Downloadable guide to VOD

Print a brochure with information on VOD to share or keep for reference.

The content on this site is not intended to replace a conversation with your transplant team. Only a trained healthcare professional can evaluate your symptoms and make a diagnosis.